A prickly, much branched herb, usually spreading or diffused, flowers are purple; about 2cm long, few together in small bunches opposite the leaves. Fruits 1.5-2 cm, round yellow or pale with green veins. Flowers and fruits appear in summer.
In forest and dry land of tropical and subtropical regions.
Fruits, whole plant, Phytochemical: alkaloids
The herb powder of this herb is very useful in Asthma, breathlessness and allergies of respiratory tracts. So it is very useful in many conditions. It is also a diuretic, carminative, expectorant, febrifuge, bitter, digestive, alterant and astringent. Fruits eaten as an anthelmentic and for indigestion. Root is an expectorant, used in Ayurvedic medicine for cough, asthma, chest pain. Also used for flatulence, sore throat, and toothache. Has high concentration of solasodine, a starting material for the manufacture of cortisone and sex hormones. It cures asthma, cough, bronchspasm, sore throat, constipation, an effective expectorant and diuretic.
Bhavamisra, an ancient physician, mentions it as promoting conception in females. Given with honey, tulsi (Ocimum sanctum), datura (Datura metal), and black pepper it can be effective in cases of bronchial asthma.